Chemistry (Exploring Matter)
Grade 9 (Applied) Overall Expectations:
1 – Analyse the impact of human activity on terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems, and assess the effectiveness of selected initiatives related to environmental sustainability
- Analyse how the chemical and physical properties of common elements and/or simple compounds affect the use of everyday materials that contain those elements and/or compounds [AI, C].
- Assess the social and environmental impact of the production or use of a common element or simple compound [AI, C]
- Sources of Pollution: Mining (Government of Canada)
- Learn About Mining (Mines Canada)
- The Environmental Impacts of Road Salt (Water Keeper)
- Refining of Metals (Simply Science)
- Impact of Metal Extraction (Greener Ideal)
- The Negative Effects of Nitrogen-rich Fertilizer to the Environment (SF Gate)
- Environmental Effects of Plastic Pollution (Bio-Tec)
- 7 Types of Plastic Wreaking Havoc on Our Health (Ecowatch)
2 – Investigate, through inquiry, physical and chemical properties of common elements and simple compounds.
- Use appropriate terminology related to the exploration of matter, including, but not limited to: combustion, conductor, decomposition, lustrous, precipitate, reaction, and soluble [C].
- Use an inquiry process to identify the physical and chemical properties of common elements and simple common compounds, including gaseous substances (e.g., sulfur is a yellow solid; sodium chloride is water soluble; nitrogen gas is colourless, odourless, and very unreactive) [PR, AI].
- Plan and conduct an investigation to compare and contrast characteristic physical properties of metals with those of non-metals (e.g., most metals are lustrous or shiny and are good conductors of heat; most non‑metals in solid form are brittle and are not good conductors of heat) [IP, PR, AI].
- Metals vs Non-Metals (Thought Co.)
- Testing the Physical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals (Revision Online)
- Investigate and distinguish between the physical and chemical properties of household substances (e.g., starch, table salt, wax, toothpaste) [PR, AI].
- Differences Between Physical and Chemical Properties (Thought Co.)
- Chemical Property Examples (Thought Co.)
- Investigate and compare the chemical properties (e.g., combustibility, reaction with water) of representative elements within groups in the periodic table families of elements (e.g., Mg and Ca; N and P) [PR, AI].
- Construct and draw models of simple molecules (e.g., O2, CO2, H2O, NH3, CH4) [PR].
- Conduct chemical tests to identify common gases (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide) on the basis of their chemical properties, and record observations [PR, AI, C].
3 – Demonstrate an understanding of the properties of common elements and simple compounds, and general features of the organization of the periodic table.
- Identify the characteristics of neutrons, protons, and electrons, including charge, location, and relative mass.
- Neutron (Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia)
- Proton (Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia)
- Electron (Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia)
- Structure of the Atom (BBC Bitesize)
- Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons (BBC Bitesize)
- Neutron (Chem4Kids)
- Electrons (Chem4Kids)
- What is a Proton? (Science Notes)
- How to Find Relative Mass (Sciencing)
- Describe the characteristics that distinguish elements from compounds (e.g., elements are pure substances made up of only one kind of atom; compounds are pure substances made up of more than one kind of element).
- Identify general features of the periodic table (e.g., metals appear on the left of the periodic table; non‑metals appear on the right; elements within the same group have similar properties).
- Explain the relationships between the properties of elements and their position in the periodic table (e.g., with reference to atomic structure, group, and period).
- Describe the characteristic physical and chemical properties of common elements (e.g., density, texture, odour, combustibility, solubility, ability to conduct or absorb heat).
- Use symbols and chemical formulae to represent common elements and simple compounds (e.g., C, O, H, H2O, CO2).
- Identify the elements and compounds in common household products (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, lye, salt).