Earth and Space Science (Space Exploration)
Grade 9 (Applied) Overall Expectations:
1 – Analyse the major challenges and benefits of space exploration, and assess the contributions of Canadians to space exploration.
- Research the challenges associated with space exploration, and explain the purpose of materials and technologies that were developed to address these challenges and how these materials and technologies are now used in other fields of endeavour (e.g., robotic arm technology developed for the space program is used in industry to handle hazardous chemicals; synthetic materials developed to protect astronauts are used in fire-fighting equipment) [IP, PR, AI, C].
- Top 10 NASA Inventions (HowStuffWorks)
- 20 Things We Wouldn’t Have Without Space Travel (California Institute of Technology)
- The Human Body in Space (NASA)
- 5 Hazards of Human Spaceflight (NASA)
- Canadarm (The Canadian Encyclopedia)
- Why Space Radiation Matters (NASA)
- Geiger Counters (Explain That Stuff!)
- Assess the contributions of Canadians to space exploration (e.g., as astronauts; in research and development) [AI, C].
- Space Technology (The Canadian Encyclopedia)
- Canadian Space Agency (The Canadian Encyclopedia)
- Canadian Space Agency (Government of Canada)
- How Canada Made the Moon Landing Possible (Reader’s Digest)
- Canada and the International Space Station (Government of Canada)
- Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (NASA)
2 – Investigate the properties of different types of celestial objects in the solar system and the universe.
- Use appropriate terminology related to space exploration, including, but not limited to: astronomical units, gravitational pull, and universe.
- Investigate patterns in the night sky (e.g., constellations) and the motion of celestial objects (e.g., the sun, our moon, planets, stars, galaxies), using direct observation, computer simulations, and/or star charts, and record the information using a graphic organizer or other format [PR, AI, C].
- Use a research process to compile and analyse information on the characteristics of various objects in the universe (e.g., planets, stars, constellations, galaxies) [PR, AI].
- Investigate a technological challenge related to the exploration of celestial objects that arises from the objects’ specific properties, and identify the solution that has been devised (e.g., multiple booster rockets power spacecraft travelling to distant planets; heat shields protect the space shuttle from extreme temperatures when re-entering Earth’s atmosphere) [PR, AI].
- Why We Explore (NASA)
- Top Five Technologies Needed for a Spacecraft to Survive Deep Space (NASA)
- Space Rockets (Explain That Stuff!)
- Getting Rockets into Space (Science Learning Hub)
3 – Demonstrate an understanding of major astronomical phenomena and of the principal components of the solar system and the universe.
- Describe the major components of the universe (e.g., planets, moons, stars, galaxies), the motion of the different types of celestial objects, and the distances between certain objects, using appropriate scientific terminology and units (e.g., astronomical units, light years).
- Compare the characteristics and properties of celestial objects that constitute the solar system, including their motion and their distance from other celestial objects in the solar system (e.g., composition, size, rotation, presence and composition of atmosphere, gravitational pull, magnetic field).
- Identify the factors that make Earth well suited for the existence of life (e.g., a magnetosphere that protects the planet from solar wind; Earth’s distance from the sun; the ability of Earth’s atmosphere to trap heat, preventing extreme fluctuations in temperature).
- Describe the characteristics of the sun and the effects of its energy on Earth and Earth’s atmosphere.
- Describe the causes of major astronomical phenomena (e.g., the aurora borealis, solar/lunar eclipses) and how various phenomena can best be observed from Earth (e.g., solar eclipses should be viewed through a telescope equipped with a solar filter, not with the naked eye).
- Describe the role of celestial objects in the traditions and beliefs of selected cultures and civilizations (e.g., Aboriginal peoples; ancient Greek, Mayan civilizations).
- Why We Explore (NASA)
- Reverence for the Heavens: How Astronomy and Religion Intersect (Space.com)
- ‘We Come from the Stars’: How Indigenous Peoples are Taking Back Astronomy (CBC)
- Sky Stories: Indigenous Astronomy (Virtual Museum)
- Cosmological Theories Through History (Physics of the Universe)
- Ancient Greek Astronomy and Cosmology (Library of Congress)
- Ancient Mayan Astronomy (Thought Co.)