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Legal Studies, Grade 12 (CLN4C)

A – The Inquiry Process and Skill Development in Legal Studies

A1 – The Inquiry Process in Legal Studies

– formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into current legal issues

– select and organize relevant evidence and information from primary and secondary sources

– assess the credibility of sources relevant to their investigations

– interpret and analyse legal issues using evidence and information relevant to their investigations and a variety of tools and strategies

– use the concepts of legal thinking (i.e., legal significance, continuity and change, interrelationships, and legal perspective) when analysing, evaluating evidence about, and formulating conclusions and/or judgements regarding legal issues

– evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements or predictions about the legal issues they are investigating

– communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the audience and purpose

– use accepted forms of documentation to acknowledge different types of sources

– use terminology appropriate to the audience and purpose when communicating the results of their investigations

A2 – Developing Transferable Skills

– describe ways in which investigations related to law can help develop skills, including the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport, that can be transferred to postsecondary opportunities, the world of work, and everyday life

– apply in everyday contexts skills and work habits developed through investigations related to law

– use the concepts of legal thinking when analysing current events related to legal issues in order to enhance their understanding of these events and of the role of informed citizens

– identify careers in which a legal background might be useful

B – Legal Foundations

B1 – Purpose and Processes of Law

– explain the purpose of various categories of law and various areas of law

– explain the relevance of specific areas of law to everyday life

– describe the legal structures and processes associated with civil actions, criminal prosecutions, and administrative law proceedings in Canada

– explain the relevance of key principles of justice to current legal issues and landmark cases in Canada

B2 – Development of Law

explain how shifting societal attitudes, values, and customs have influenced the development of Canadian law

– describe, with reference to both federal and provincial governments, the division of powers between the three branches of government in Canada that are relevant to law, and explain how the division has affected the creation, implementation, and enforcement of law in Canada over time

B3 – Law and Diversity

– explain various provisions in Canadian law that may be used to accommodate the interests and needs of diverse groups

– analyse from a legal perspective the influence of diverse psychological, socio-economic, and sociological factors on the administration of law

– analyse the ability of the justice system to respond equitably to various challenges faced by people in potentially vulnerable groups

C – Rights and Responsibilities

C1 – Fundamentals of Human Rights Law in Canada

– explain the legal significance and scope of the rights and guarantees in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

– explain the legal concept of competing rights, with reference to specific conflicts between different Charter rights and between human rights legislation and other legislation

C2 – Rights and Responsibilities

– describe some everyday legal responsibilities of Canadians

– analyse from a legal perspective issues related to the right of individuals, groups, and governments to use natural resources, and the corresponding responsibilities/regulations related to environmental protection

– describe some harmful effects that people can experience when governments and the legal system do not recognize and protect rights and freedoms

– describe current Ontario laws that are designed to protect the rights of youth and to regulate their behaviour

– assess the level of consistency between government policies and actions and Canada’s stated commitment to the protection of human rights at home and abroad

C3 – Influences on Human Rights Issues

– analyse from a legal perspective some positive and negative effects of globalization on human rights protection in Canada and abroad

– evaluate from a legal perspective the impact of advances in technology on human rights protection in Canada and in the world

– analyse from a legal perspective the influence of the media, including social media, on public awareness of human rights issues

– explain how various political and socioeconomic factors can influence individual and group attitudes towards human rights issues

D – Contemporary Legal Issues

D1 – Law and Society

– analyse the role of law in the workplace

– analyse the role of law in protecting the natural environment

– explain the role of law in responding to various contemporary social issues

– explain the role of law in responding to various contemporary financial issues

D2 – Legal Structures and Processes

– describe various types of illegal activities in Canada and the legislation that governs them

– describe various types of procedures that may be used to resolve different types of disputes outside the official court system

– analyse situations in which legal judgements balance the competing rights and interests of individuals, groups, and governments

D3 – Emerging Legal Issues

– explain the legal implications of issues affecting specific demographic groups

– explain the legal implications of issues related to public security and protection

– describe the influence of new technologies on various law-related professions

– describe the legal implications of various recent international political events, humanitarian crises, and environmental issues

E – Law in the Workplace

E1 –  Law and Careers

– describe the educational, financial, and legal requirements for pursuing a variety of careers where an understanding of law is important

– identify the personal aptitudes and qualities that are needed in different types of careers where an understanding of law is important

– describe the type of work, codes of professional conduct, potential employment opportunities, and potential earnings associated with various careers where an understanding of law is important

–  identify law-related reasons why a person might be barred from entering or remaining in a career

E2 – Roles and Responsibilities in the Workplace

– analyse the roles and responsibilities of unions in the workplace, including their history, purpose, achievements, and limitations

– analyse the roles and responsibilities of the legislature and judiciary in the creation and implementation of labour and employment protections

– describe legal obligations that apply to all Canadians – workers and employers – in the workplace

– analyse the legal roles and responsibilities of employers, companies, and corporations

E3. Legal Issues in the Workplace

– analyse legal issues related to the role of new technologies in workplace practices

– explain the impact on the workplace of legal issues related to environmental practices

– analyse the effects of various types of national and international laws on business and employment in Canada