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Canadian and International Law, University Prep (CLN4U)

A – The Inquiry Process and Skill Development in Legal Studies

A1 – The Inquiry Process in Legal Studies

– formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into legal issues in Canada and around the world, and issues relating to international law

– select and organize relevant evidence and information from primary and secondary sources

– assess the credibility of sources relevant to their investigations

– interpret and analyse legal issues using evidence and information relevant to their investigations and a variety of tools and strategies and taking into account relevant legal theories and ethical and equity concerns

– use the concepts of legal thinking when analysing, evaluating evidence about, and formulating conclusions and/or judgements regarding legal issues in Canada and around the world, and issues relating to international law

– evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements or predictions about the issues they are investigating

– communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the audience and purpose

– use accepted forms of documentation to acknowledge different types of sources

– use terminology appropriate to the audience and purpose when communicating the results of their investigations

A2 – Developing Transferable Skills

– describe ways in which investigations related to law can help them develop skills, including the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport, that can be transferred to postsecondary opportunities, the world of work, and everyday life

– apply in everyday contexts skills and work habits developed through and relevant to the study of law

– use the concepts of legal thinking when analysing current events related to legal issues in order to enhance their understanding of these events and their role as informed citizens

– identify careers in which a law background might be useful (e.g., business owner, nongovernmental organization staff member, lawyer, negotiator, mediator, diplomat)

B – Legal Foundations

B1 – Principles of Law

– explain the significance of various legal and political concepts and terms used in discussions of national and international affairs

– explain how various non-legal influences have affected and/or continue to affect laws, legal thinking, and judgements

– explain the distinctions between domestic and international law, substantive and procedural law, public and civil law, and various areas of law

– explain how different types of law affect people’s everyday lives

B2 – Legal Theory and Procedures

– evaluate from a legal perspective the relative influence of various theories and perspectives

– explain from a legal perspective how various physiological, psychological, and sociological theories of criminal behaviour have influenced criminal law

– explain various historical and contemporary methods and systems for adjudicating legal questions

– assess the relative effectiveness of various legal or political means used by individuals and groups to advocate for legal reform

B3 – Development of Law

– identify some key issues and developments that have influenced legal change and explain how they promoted and/or prevented change

– explain how evolving social attitudes, values, and circumstances have promoted or prevented changes in various areas of Canadian and international law over time, and might do so in the future

– explain the reasons of various individuals and groups for seeking legal reform and assess the significance of specific instances where the advocated reforms have been achieved

C – Rights and Freedoms

C1 – Legal Principles of Human Rights Law

– compare the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms with the rights charters of other nations or international bodies in terms of their legal force and scope

– identify the rights and freedoms protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and their corresponding responsibilities or obligations, and explain the implications of these rights and responsibilities for various individuals and groups in Canadian society

– explain the legal implications of a country’s signing of various internationally recognized treaties and conventions related to the protection of human rights

C2 – Development of Human Rights Law

– analyse the impact, both positive and negative, of landmark legislation on the development of human rights law in Canada

– evaluate progress in removing historical and contemporary barriers to the enjoyment of equal rights by various individuals and groups, in Canada and internationally

– analyse various issues associated with addressing human rights violations, with reference to specific past and/or present examples of violations in Canada and around the world

– analyse the contributions of various individuals and groups to strengthening protection for human rights in Canada and internationally

C3 – Protection of Human Rights and Freedoms

– explain the role of Parliament in creating the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and the role of the judiciary in interpreting and enforcing the Charter’s provisions

– compare from a legal perspective various ways in which people living in Canada can act to protect their rights

– explain from a legal perspective why it may or may not be justifiable to limit individual or collective rights and freedoms in some situations

– compare the roles of different branches of government in creating legislation that affects human rights and in interpreting and enforcing its provisions in various countries

C4 – Contemporary Issues

– analyse from a legal perspective contemporary circumstances in which individual or group rights and freedoms are threatened

– compare from a legal perspective the rights and protections for various kinds of workers in Canadian jurisdictions and jurisdictions outside Canada

– assess the strengths and weaknesses of current laws for protecting the rights of individuals and various groups from the impact of human activities that cause changes to the natural environment

D – Foundations of International Law and Dispute Resolution

D1 – Fundamentals of International Law

– explain the legal significance of various principles and key concepts in international law

– describe various challenges that face sovereign states in creating, ratifying, and implementing international treaties

– identify and define various types of international crimes

D2 – Development of International Law

– identify and describe agreements and organizations that have influenced the development of international law

– explain, using historical and contemporary examples, the roles of various international organizations and courts, including the scope of their legal mandate to define, regulate, enforce, and change international laws

D3 – Conflict and Cooperation

– identify different types of international disputes and compare the strengths and weaknesses of peaceful and non-peaceful methods of resolving them

– compare the legal mandate in the enforcement of international law of the International Court of Justice with the legal mandate of the International Criminal Court

– compare Canadian and international perspectives on global issues that are addressed in various international treaties and agreements

– analyse examples of domestic laws and practices that violate or have violated human rights protected under international law or conventions

– analyse Canada’s record of supporting or not supporting various alliances, agreements, and treaties under international law

E – International Legal Issues

E1 – Criminal Law

– analyse from a legal perspective the concept of morality as well as differing definitions of certain criminal offences in the domestic law of various countries

– describe the key steps in the legal process of bringing an accused to trial in Canada and in international contexts, and explain the legal reasons for each step

– assess from a legal perspective the strengths and weaknesses of arguments for and against interventions by the international community in instances of crimes against people of a particular region, country, or ethnicity

– compare the activities of some organizations, both domestic and international, that enforce law, and identify circumstances in which the roles of international and domestic organizations might conflict with one another

– describe ways in which countries exercise legal power outside their own borders and ways in which they cooperate or do not cooperate in the administration of criminal justice across borders

– analyse the relationship between the principles and purposes of sentencing and the penalties imposed in the criminal justice systems of various countries

E2 – Environmental Protection

– explain the purposes of environmental protection laws

– describe from a legal perspective the role of various individuals and groups in developing and enforcing environmental protection laws

– analyse from a legal perspective the strengths and weaknesses of international laws to protect key natural resources held in common around the world

– assess the validity of reasons put forward by various stakeholders for opposing various environmental protection agreements

– describe the purpose and actual or potential effects of various single-country and multilateral/international environmental protection agreements

E3 – Workplace Legal Issues

– explain the role of governments, in Canada and internationally, in developing laws relating to labour and the workplace, and identify key components of existing laws

– analyse and describe the relationships between the key parties affected by laws regarding behaviour and standards in the workplace, in Canada and internationally

– explain the legal issues raised by various violations of Canadian and/or international workplace safety codes and labour laws

E4 – Emerging Legal Issues

– analyse from a legal perspective how various technological advances may challenge or support the administration of justice, in Canada and internationally

– analyse from a legal perspective the advantages and/or disadvantages of participation in international economic organizations and agreements

– evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of international agreements in protecting various rights and freedoms