Physics (Electrical Applications)
Grade 9 (Applied) Overall Expectations:
1 – Assess the major social, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of using electrical energy, distinguishing between renewable and non‑renewable sources, and propose a plan of action to reduce energy costs.
- Assess social, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of using a renewable and a non‑renewable source of electrical energy (e.g., solar, wind, hydro, nuclear, coal, oil, natural gas), taking the issue of sustainability into account [AI, C].
- Wind Energy Pros and Cons (Energy Informative)
- Solar Energy Pros and Cons (Energy Informative)
- Toxic Chemicals in Solar Panels (Sciencing)
- Pros and Cons of Hydropower (Energy Sage)
- Hydropower and the Environment (U.S. Energy Information Administration)
- Pros and Cons of Coal Energy (Sciencing)
- Coal and the Environment (U.S. Energy Information Administration)
- Pros and Cons of Oil (Clean Energy Ideas)
- Natural Gas 101 Pros and Cons (Environmental Science)
- Nuclear Energy Pros and Cons (Energy Informative)
- Radioactive Waste (Government of Canada)
- Propose a plan of action to decrease household energy costs by applying their knowledge of the energy consumption of different types of appliances (e.g., front-load and top-load washing machines; cathode ray tube [CRT] and liquid crystal display [LCD] computer monitors) [PR, AI, C].
- Energuide in Canada (Government of Canada)
- Energy Star (Energystar.gov)
- Canada’s Standard for Efficient Light Bulbs (Natural Resource Canada)
- High-Efficiency vs. Conventional Washing Machine (Doc’s Appliance Service)
- 15 Home Appliances That Use Energy When Turned Off (Homestar)
2 – Investigate, through inquiry, the properties of static and current electricity and the cost of the consumption of electrical energy.
- Use appropriate terminology related to static and current electricity, including, but not limited to: ammeter, ampere, battery, conductivity, current, energy consumption, fuse, kilowatt hours, load, ohm, potential difference, resistance, switch, voltmeter, and volts [C].
- Use an inquiry process to determine and compare the conductivity of various materials (e.g., metals, plastic, glass, water) [PR, AI].
- Conduct inquiries involving conduction and induction to investigate the law of electric charges [PR, AI].
- Design, draw circuit diagrams of, and construct simple series and parallel circuits (e.g., circuits with: one light bulb; two light bulbs of the same brightness; one light bulb on and the other light bulb off) [IP, PR, C].
- Compare, on the basis of observation, the differences between series and parallel circuits [PR, AI].
- Series vs Parallel Circuits (YouTube)
- How is a Parallel Circuit Different from a Series Circuit? (Sciencing)
- Use an inquiry process to investigate the effects that changing resistance and changing potential difference have on current in a simple series circuit [PR, AI].
- Calculate the costs of running common household electrical devices, and compare their efficiency (e.g., using EnerGuide information) [AI, C].
- Graph and interpret electricity consumption data collected over a period of time from electrical meters at home or in the community (e.g., their school, a local community centre) [PR, AI, C].
3 – Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts and principles of static and current electricity.
- Compare conductors and insulators, and explain how materials allow static charge to build up or be discharged.
- Explain the law of electric charges with reference to common electrostatic phenomena (e.g., charging by contact or by induction).
- Identify the components of a simple direct current (DC) electrical circuit (e.g., electrical source, electrical load, switch, fuse), and describe their functions.
- DC Circuit (Khan Academy)
- The Four (and More) Basic Parts of an Electrical Circuit (Hunker)
- Fuses (All About Circuits)
- Identify electrical quantities and their symbols (e.g., electric current I, potential difference V, resistance R), and explain how they are measured using an ammeter, a voltmeter, and a multimeter.
- Explain the characteristics of electric current, potential difference, and resistance, in simple series and parallel circuits.
- Describe, qualitatively, the interrelationships between resistance, potential difference, and electric current, in a series circuit (e.g., the effect on current when potential difference is changed).
- What is the Relationship Between Electric Current and Potential Difference? (A Plus Topper)
- Current and Resistance (Khan Academy)
- Potential Difference and Resistance (BBC Bitesize)